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Tire Terminology...


Calendar A machine consisting of two or more rolls that continuously sheets a thin ply of rubber compound or coats a fabric with a rubber compound.
Camber The angle that the tire is leaning measured from true vertical. The inward or outward tilt of the wheel/tire at the top.
Camber Thrust The cornering force developed by a tire due to its camber. a force in the same direction as the leaning of the tire.
Carbon Black Very fine, specially structured particles of carbon; used in rubber compounds as a reinforcing filler.
Carrying Capacity Amount of load that a tire can carry at a given inflation pressure as established by the Tire and Rim Association.
Casing (Carcass) The structure of tire cords locked around wire beads, (most often used in relation to worn tires).
Caster The angle between the tire vertical and the steering pivot axis; the backward or forward tilt of the steering knuckle pivot points.
Center of Gravity The center balance point of a vehicle; the single point where a car would be supported without tipping up or down.
Centerline A plane dividing a tire, wheel, or vehicle into two symmetrical halves.
Centrifugal Force The force that tends to throw a tire away from the center of rotation same as LATERAL FORCE.
Chafer Abrasion resistant rubber coated material to help prevent the tire's beads from rim damage and chafing.
Change-Over Removal of tires placed on car or truck by the manufacturer prior to significant use, and substitution of better or more suitable tires.
Chapman Strut A rear suspension system which operates on the same principle as the McPherson Strut; it uses lower links or a control arm and a long spring-shock strut.
Chassis The frame, suspension system, engine, and drive train of a vehicle; the assembled parts of an automobile without the body.
Coefficient of Friction The force required to slide an object, divided by the weight of the object; this indicated the difficulty in sliding one surface against another.
Coil Springs Suspension components of coiled spring steel that compress and respond to road pressure, permitting the up-and-down movement of a vehicle as it goes over road bumps and dips.
Cold Inflation The pressure in a tire that has been driven less than 1 mile or has been standing for three hours or more.
Compliance Steer A steering effect caused by the deflection or compliance of bushings, joints, and other suspension components under loads and forces.
Compounding Refers to the mixture of ingredients that go into the rubber used in a tire. Different chemicals or types of compounds affect wear, traction, cut resistance or other properties of a tire.
Concave Molding A process by which the center tread area of a tire is depressed in the molding stage. When inflated, the tread flattens out against the road surface more perfectly than a convex molded tire.
Conic - (Also Conical) Of or shaped like a cone.
Conicity Quality or state of being conical. (Cause of radial tire pull.)
Control Arm A device used to connect the un-sprung position of a suspension to the sprung chassis, which allows suspension travel.
Cord Fabric or steel wire strands forming plies and belts in tires.
Cord Angle The degree at which the plies or belts cross the center line of any given tire.
Cornering Force The force that turns a car around a corner. The opposite of lateral or centrifugal force.
Cross Pattern The sequential torquing of the lug nuts in a pattern across from one another.
Cross Section Width External sidewall to sidewall measurement of inflated tire, exclusive of ornamental ribs and lettering. Sometimes called section width.
Crown The region between the shoulders of the tire.
Crowned Road A road design with a slope or pitch from its center to the curb or shoulder in order to facilitate water drainage.
Curb Guard A rubber protrusion running circumferentially around some tires just above the whitewall to prevent curb scuffing on the whitewall area of a tire.
Curb Weight The total weight of a vehicle with no passengers and a full tank of gas.
Cure To vulcanize; also time and temperature conditions used to vulcanize a tire.
Custom Wheel An aftermarket wheel designed to improve performance and enhance appearance and comprised of one, two, or three pieces.

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